Monday, September 16, 2019

Belonging: The Crucible

Belonging is a far-reaching yet complex idea that is powerfully explored in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. It illustrates a variety of aspects of belonging, where it can be compared and contrasted with ideas in other texts such as Oliver Parker’s film Dorian Gray and Oodgeroo Noonuccal’s poem We Are Going. These texts present ideas of power and isolation, which consequently lead to individuals either belonging or not belonging to the community. Through the use of a variety of literary, film and dramatic techniques, the composers can emphasise and convey the similar (or differing) aspects of belonging found in each text. Power is an evident theme in The Crucible that suggests it controls the fragile town of Salem. As such, an individual’s feeling of belonging is influenced by Salem’s theocratic and authoritative government. The characterisation of Hale allows the audience to realise this, as he immediately belongs and assumes a position of power. Initially, Hale is the driving force of the witch trials, as he represents the theocracy, is educated and possesses books that are â€Å"weighted with authority†. This feeds his ego as the ‘expert’ and demonstrates his ability to exert power onto the townspeople. He also stresses that â€Å"Theology is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small†. This clearly shows that you either belong or don’t belong in the community, and that those who choose not to belong do so at their own peril. However, Hale’s guilt grows throughout the play when he realises the bitterness of the accusations and metaphorically describes his actions with â€Å"What I touched with my bright confidence it died, and where I turned the eye of my great faith, blood flowed up†. This evidently shows the extent to which Hale can exert power and his consequent feelings of guilt. Ultimately, Hale questions his faith and removes himself from the sense of belonging fostered in Salem. His assertion of â€Å"I denounce these proceedings, I quit this court! †emphasise his withdrawal from the community and decision not to conform. The same idea of power can be compared to Oliver Parker’s film Dorian Gray, and suggests that there can be devastating consequences when one allows themselves to be influenced by others in order to belong. Since Dorian possesses wealth, beauty and eternal youth, he is a powerful but vain character. Being a newcomer, Dorian wants to belong and so therefore, he allows himself to be influenced by Henry Wotten’s hedonistic way of life. When Dorian announces â€Å"Perhaps I should nail my soul to the devil’s alter†, he contemplates the idea of conforming in order to sustain power and belong. Dorian does eventually follow Henry’s example and becomes accepted by society. Parker also uses the technique of slow motion to emphasise this. When Dorian enters and announces â€Å"Well here I am†, time temporarily slows in order to accentuate his power and influence. Dorian’s friends, who are now old and bitter, are awestruck by the sight of him. As such, his sense of belonging is heightened due to the admiration and acceptance he receives from society. However, Dorian eventually develops a conscience and recognises he has led a sinful life. Parker uses the motif of a deteriorating painting to demonstrate this. The painting reminds Dorian that he should maintain his own values and firstly belonging to himself before belonging to society. As a result, he realises the negative consequences of trying to conform and loses his power by destroying the painting as a sign of self-belonging. Isolation is another idea explored in The Crucible, suggesting that indivuals can face barriers to belonging, which therefore lead to feelings of alienation. Abigail and her circle of friends are the ones who feel the most loneliness since they are young and unmarried. This forces them to secretly rebel and dance in the woods. For Abigail, the need for acceptance is shown through her affair with John Proctor. Miller juxtaposes love and lust to highlight their differences. Abigail’s exclamation of â€Å"You loved me John Proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me! † shows her repetition of the word ‘love’. However, Proctor only uses ‘lust’ to describe their relationship. As a result, the audience sees that Abigail is a character who is constantly rejected with a desperate need to belong. Furthermore, Abigail’s crying of â€Å"Child! How do you call me child! †emphasise her failed attempt at belonging, and suggests that the only way for a woman to be accepted in society is to be a wife. John Proctor is the opposite of Abigail and ultimately chooses not to belong. His words â€Å"I cannot mount the gibbet like a saint. It is a fraud. I am not that man† are metaphorical and signify his rejection of the Salem justice system. Although he believes he is unworthy of anything due to his affair with Abigail, Proctor eventually finds â€Å"a shred of goodness† in himself by maintaining his own values and choosing to belong to himself. His redemption is also shown through Miller’s stage directions. The drumroll crash and streaming sunlight in the final scene contrasts with previous scenes and signifies that he has done the right thing by choosing to die and belong to himself rather than sign himself to lies. In comparison to The Crucible, Oodgeroo Noonuccal’s poem We Are Going also conveys themes of isolation. Similarly to Abigail, the Aboriginal persona faces a barrier to belonging. The alienation of which the persona feels is due to the white settlers and the consequential loss of culture and identity. â€Å"Many white men hurry about like ants† is an example of a simile that suggests that the settlers are busy and stressed. This is a contrast to traditional aboriginal life, and shows the differing perspectives between the settlers and the narrator. Here, the juxtaposition of the two ethnic groups is parallel to Abigail and Proctor’s view on love and lust, and reinforces the idea of isolation. Furthermore, Noonuccal uses repetition, particularly with the word â€Å"Gone† to emphasis the lost feelings of belonging. Noonuccal writes: â€Å"The scrubs are gone, the eagle is gone, the bora ring is gone† to stress the loss of culture and connection with the land. The poem also uses collective first-person narration to give the audience a personal understanding on the frustrations of not belonging. â€Å"We are going† are the three words in the title and conclusion. It implies that the aboriginals are not welcome in their homeland and will let go of the past and their old ways. This echoes the idea of belonging to one’s self, which is found in The Crucible. Like Proctor, the aboriginals choose not to conform and decide to leave in order to preserve their individuality and â€Å"self belonging†. The Crucible exhibits situations where humans have the need for power and acceptance. These ideas of belonging (or not belonging) can also be compared in Dorian Gray and We Are Going through a variety of dramatic, film and literary techniques. Therefore, these ideas are delicately communicated with a greater impact on the audience’s understanding of the concept of belonging.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Miranda warning

IntroductionFor even the most casual viewer of police television shows, the cry of â€Å"read me my rights† has been heard from the lips of accused criminals as frequently as anything else.   Beyond this statement, however, lies a real life drama- The Miranda Warning.   Where this warning came from, its true meaning and intent, as well as what the future should hold for The Miranda Warning are all pivotal questions which will be answered in the course of this research in order to better understand not only Miranda, but the overall American criminal justice system and its approach to the rights of those accused of crimes.What is the Miranda Warning?To begin, the origins of The Miranda Warning itself, as well as the actual verbiage of the warning, need to be understood.   Originally, The Miranda Warning came forth from the legal case of Ernesto Miranda, the focus of the 1963 Supreme Court Case Miranda v. Arizona   (Lyman, 2004).   Essentially, the facts of the case are as follows: Ernesto Miranda was arrested, accused of the rape of a mildly mentally handicapped woman.   At the time of his arrest, Miranda was not advised by the arresting officer that he had the Constitutional right to remain silent, to choose not to answer questions without an attorney present, and to not be forced to offer any information that would be used against him in any legal case.Eventually, Miranda’s attorney argued that Miranda’s confession to the crime should be thrown out of court, because it was obtained without Miranda being advised of his rights.   The original judge in the case denied this motion, but eventually, the Supreme Court ruled that the statements that Miranda originally made to the police should be disregarded because he was not read his rights (Robertson, 1997).   As a result of this pivotal ruling, a standardized warning, therein known as The Miranda Warning, was instituted by all police forces in the United States, and recited to a nyone accused of a crime before being questioned.   The full text of the warning is as follows:â€Å"You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Do you understand? Anything you do say may be used against you in a court of law. Do you understand? You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. Do you understand?  If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning if you wish. Do you understand?If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Do you understand? Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present?† (Robertson, 1997, p. 161)  Ultimately, the warning was effectively made much shorter and easier for suspects to und erstand, presented as follows:â€Å"You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense.† (Robertson, 1997, p. 162).With The Miranda Warning having been refined and put in place, one would make the assumption that the rights of individuals are protected, and the police are safeguarded against having key evidence dismissed on a technicality, but the opposite is actually the case.   Further research has revealed pivotal issues surrounding The Miranda Warning.Pivotal Issues Surrounding the Miranda WarningThe Miranda Warning faces heavy controversy both from the viewpoint of the criminal justice system and the accused criminal.   For police and the courts, Miranda is sometimes argued against, as the claim is made that the Warning prevents the s wift investigation of criminal matters due to the lack of divulgence of important information during questioning that could literally save lives or property; this has especially become true in the modern era of terrorism, when foreign suspects, many argue, need to be compelled to give information immediately so that potential terror plots can be diffused before mass murder occurs.However, for the accused and the attorneys that represent them, Miranda is seen as something that is necessary in order to keep police from either misinterpreting the statements of suspects, coercing confessions out of suspects through psychological means, or by actually resorting to violence to literally beat a confession out of the suspect (Miranda’s Enemies, 2000).   Based on the two sides of the issue, the pivotal issue is clear: how can Miranda be used in a way that protects victims, aids law enforcement and promotes common order, while still giving accused criminals the entitlements of due pr ocess as guaranteed by the Constitution?   There is no clear answer to how this can be achieved, but on both the federal and state levels, the issue has been explored.States’ Views of the Miranda WarningSome states have taken a more generous view of the use of Miranda than others, resulting in cases being brought to appeal in the supreme courts of those states.   The landmark case in this regard, cited over the past several years, is Missouri v. Seibert.   The basic facts of this case were that police in the state of Missouri were reading Miranda to suspects only after they began questioning them, and they would then continue to question after the reading, in an effort to confuse a suspect.With this approach, the suspect, even if their statements made before the reading were dismissed, would still likely have some statements made after the reading that would be incriminating.   Calling this a â€Å"two-step† around the Constitution, this practice was eventually ruled illegal by a Missouri court (Leo, 1996).   This also brings up another important technicality- the need to provide Miranda to everyone being questioned by police, or only those who are officially placed under arrest.   The net effect of all of this is to greatly muddy the legal waters and make the use of Miranda, or the lack of it, a hot legal topic on both sides of the courtroom bench, so to speak.   Therefore, many states have looked to the federal government to issue universal decrees on Miranda.Constitutional View of the Miranda WarningEvery accused criminal has classically been protected by the Constitution, specifically by the First and Fifth Amendments as an example.   Essentially, all of the debates about Miranda have filtered down to a few Constitutional standards, which of course are not set in stone due to the dynamic nature of the American justice system, but are worthy of discussion in this research.   Generally speaking, the Supreme Court of the United States, based on cases like Missouri v. Seibert, has ruled that neither the accused in a criminal case, nor those arrested in a criminal case need to be â€Å"Mirandized† as it has come to be called.However, there is a caution to be noted- if the individual is not made aware of their rights, there is the possibility that statements they make can be dismissed in a legal case against them since the information was technically obtained in an illegal manner by the law enforcement personnel who obtained it in the first place (Nooter, 2005).   Again, there is a legal tightrope to be walked here, between what can be done to protect individual rights of accused and victim alike, while still serving the interests of justice and fulfilling the role of law enforcement in society.   A key question leads to the conclusion of the research- what should be done about Miranda?Conclusion- What Should be Done about the Miranda Warning?In wondering what should be done about Miranda, there i s something that needs to be laid out right off- there is no ideal criminal justice system, and the guilty will sometimes avoid punishment, and unfortunately, the innocent will be punished as well.   However, this being said, there need to be safeguards in place to make sure that the police do not falsely generate evidence against accused criminals, and as well, that the truly guilty do not escape justice.   Therefore, in closing, it is one humble opinion that Miranda should be kept in place, closely monitored as it has been.   While it is flawed in some areas, to discard it wholesale would be much worse than the present situation.ReferencesLeo, R. A. (1996). The Impact of Miranda Revisited. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86(3), 621-692.Lyman, M.D. (2004).   Criminal Investigation: The Art and Science.   New York: Prentice Hall.Miranda's Enemies. (2000, May 15). The Nation, 270, 4.Nooter, D. S. (2005). Is Missouri V. Seibert Practicable? Supreme Court Dances the â€Å"Two-Step† around Miranda. American Criminal Law Review, 42(3), 1093+.Robertson, D. (1997). A Dictionary of Human Rights. London: Europa Publications.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Computional Fluid Dynamics Through a Pipe

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION3 Method:3 Part 23 Part 33 Part 44 Part 54 RESULTS4 Part 14 Part 26 Part 36 Part 46 Part 5:6 DISCUSSION7 CONCLUSION7 REFERENCES7 INTRODUCTION The main objective of this assignment is to simulate a 3-D air flow in a pipe using Ansys CFX. The pipe was simulated under specific conditions. These conditions are air temperature to be 25? C (degrees Celsius), one atmospheric reference pressure, no heat transfer and laminar flow. The results from the simulation of laminar flow in the pipe were compared with the theoretical ones.Also the mesh was refined in the simulation to see if it is possible to get more accurate results using grid convergence analysis. Method: The pipe used in the simulation has dimensions of a 0. 5m axial length and a radial diameter of 12mm. The air entering the pipe, inlet velocity, is set to 0. 4 m/s at a temperature of 25? C and one atmospheric pressure. No slip condition was set on the pipe walls. The outlet of pipe was set to zero gau ge average static pressure. In CFX a mesh was formed on the pipe with a default mesh spacing (element size) of 2mm.Figure (1) and (2) shows the setup of the model before simulation was preformed Figure 1: Mesh without Inflation Figure 1: Mesh without Inflation Figure 2: Mesh with Inflation Part 2 Calculating the pressure drop ? p=fLD? Ub22Equation (1) Calculating Reynolds number Re=UbD/? Equation (2) Friction Factorf=64/ReEquation (3) The results were calculated using excel, and plotted in Figure (3). Part 3 Estimating the entrance pipe length Le: Le/D=0. 06ReEquation (4) Having Re=UbD/? Equation (3) The simulated results of velocity vs. axial length were plotted in Figure (5).From the graph the Le (entrance pipe length) was determined by estimating the point in the x-axis where the curve is straight horizontal line. Part 4 Comparison of the radial distribution of the axial velocity in the fully developed region in the simulated model against the following analytical equation: UUmax = 1-rr02 Equation (5) The results were calculated using excel, and plotted in Figure (4). Part 5 The simulation was performed three times, each time with a different grid setting. The numbers of nodes were 121156,215875 and 312647 for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd simulation.RESULTS Part 1 Figure 3: Pressure Distribution vs. Axial Length Figure 3: Pressure Distribution vs. Axial Length Figure 4: Axial Velocity vs. Radial Diameter Figure 5: Velocity vs. Axial Distance Part 2 Having: Dynamic viscosity ? = 1. 835Ãâ€"10-5 kg/ms and Density ? = 1. 184 kg/m3 Reynolds Number Re=UbD? == 261. 58 Friction Factorf=64Re== 0. 244667 ?p=0. 965691 Pa From the simulation the pressure estimated at the inlet is ? p=0. 96562 Pa (0. 95295-0. 965691)/0. 965691*100 = 1. 080 % Part 3 Having Re=UbD? =261. 58 The entrance pipe length Le: Le=0. 06Re*D = 0. 188 mFrom the graph in Figure (3) the Le is estimated to be ~ 0. 166667 ((0. 166667-0. 188)/0. 188)*100 = 11. 73% Part 4 From the graph in Figure 2 the theoretic al velocity at the center of the pipe is estimated to be 0. 8 m/s. From the simulation the velocity at the center of the pipe is estimated to be 0. 660406 m/s. ((0. 688179-0. 8)/0. 8)*100= 13. 98% Part 5: Table 1: Percentage Error for Each Simulation Number of Nodes| Axial Velocity % error (%)| Pressure % error (%) | 120000 Simulated I| 13. 98| 1. 31| 215000 Simulated II| 12. 42| 2. 24| 312000 Simulated III| 12. 38| 2. 28|Figure 6: Percentage Error vs. Number of Nodes Figure 6: Percentage Error vs. Number of Nodes The percentage error for the axial velocity results from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd simulation were calculated and plotted in Figure (6), as well as the pressure result along the pipe. Table (1) shows the axial velocity and pressure percentage error for each simulation. DISCUSSION After the simulation was successfully done on Ansys CFX and the simulated results were compared with theoretical results, it was found that the simulated results have slight deviation from theoretical ones. In PART 2, he pressure in the simulated result differed by the theoretical by a 1. 080%, for 1st simulation. In PART 3, the simulated results for entrance pipe length, Le, differed from the theoretical results by 11. 73%. In PART 4, Figure (4), the simulated velocity curve is less accurate than that of the theoretical. In PART 5, meshing refinements and inflation were done to the simulation in order to getting better results. Figures (6) show with more nodes and inflation the accuracy of the results increases. Increasing the nodes gradually was found to be an advantage where higher or more accurate results were obtained.This is noted in grid convergence graph, Figure (6), as the number of nodes increase the pressure percentage error is converging to 2% while for velocity percentage error is converging to 12%. On the other hand, the percentage error increased with the increase of the number of nodes while the velocity error decreased with the increase of number of nodes. In Par t 2 the percentage error for pressure drop is 1. 080%, for 1st simulation. But when trying to increase the accuracy of the simulated velocity result by refining the meshing and adding nodes the pressure drop percentage error increases, as shown in figure (6).This is due to that Darcy-Weisbach equation, equation (1), assumes constant developed flow all along the pipe where in the simulated results the flow is observed to become developed father down the pipe from the inlet. This is assumed to change the pressure distribution along the pipe. CONCLUSION More nodes used in meshing will produce more accurate and precise results, as shown in Figure (6). Also the meshing plays a vital rule on the sensitivity of results in terms of the accuracy of these results. REFERENCES [1]Fluid Mechanics Frank M. White Sixth edition. 2006

Friday, September 13, 2019

Australian and Ireland Health Care System

Health care is one of the basic and central factors of consideration of any state. The 21st century is being affected directly or indirectly by a lot of deadly diseases such as cancer, heart related complications, kidney failure and HIV and AIDS pandemic. It is therefore, the responsibility of government and the United Nations to help in safeguarding the health of the corresponding nations. In this piece of work, the paper will focus on the Australian and Ireland health care system. A comparison of the two healthcare systems will be analyzed critically. Australia is located in Continental Australasia or Oceania while Ireland is in Continental Europe. These two countries fall under top ten in the best health care providers in the world (Hungerford et al, 2014). The paper will majorly dwell on the health policies, current issues, and problems faced in the delivery of services in the two nations. Moreover, comparisons and the contrast as per the health care country will also be explaine d in an explicit way in the paper. The two countries have the guarding regulations in the running of their health care. In both countries, the government majorly controls health care. In Australia, it is supervised by Australian Department for Health and Ageing (DNH) (Australia, 2006).It was formed through the Acts of Parliament in order to aid in giving the government the way things run or suggestions on what ought to be done in order to improve health care system in the country. This body was formed and implemented in the year 1984. After its implementation, the health sector in the country radically improved in both the public and the private sector. On the other hand, the government also facilitates Medicare in Ireland. It is the role of the Health Service Providers (HSP) of this nation to foresee the functionalism of the health sector and inform the government accordingly. It was founded in the year 2005 through the Act of Parliament (Lakeman, 2008) The formation was as a result of problems which had outlawed the government and thus the need for a special body was of great magnificent. In both the countries, Red Cross Society helps in delivery of blood in case an emergency arises (BRAITHWAITE,   HYDE & POPE, 2010). The main reasons behind the two states taking over the responsibility of providing and running of the health care fraternity was to prevent its citizens from over-exploitation from the private health care providers. Apart from that, the government realized that the need for provision of quality health care depends solely on their capability. Moreover, the challenges brought about by the rising cases of chronic diseases such as cancer was looming and thus the need to act swiftly was required. Australia and Ireland also wanted to be like other nations whom the role of running health care fraternity was the responsibility of the government. In both the nations, legal and ethical health care of the ageing population is involuntary. The old people have the right to whether accept to be taken to nursing home to spend the rest days of their lives or to remain at home. One realizes that, in both countries, the old people do not welcome the idea of being raised in nursing home. Most would like to spend their dying age at home since they feel comfortable because it is the place they have always been. According to statistics carried out, most feel that they are isolated by their children and the society when taken to nursing homes. Besides, women were found as the ones who preferred to be in nursing home as compared to their counterparts the male. It is estimated that 5% of the population in ageing stage live in nursing homes prior to their death. The retention and use of human biological contents in both countries is considered. This biological sample such has kidneys of the diseased or heart or even the entire body is allowed by their respective countries to be used as control experiments for testing of drugs among other medical tests. Despite of it being constituted, it is faced with a lot of ethical challenges. It is countenanced by the wider competing public interest as a result of its potential value. Human body parts are very expensive and rarely found and thus the relatives and the public take this as an opportunity to get back into the government financially. Additionally, some people are very religious to an extent that they believe in respect for the death. This makes them not to allow any body part of their deceased to be used in biological process. This has raised a lot of alarm and slowed down the medical research. Both countries have a constituted mental health law. According to this regulation, the persons of unsound mind are subject to detention in safe places in order to avoid causing of problems in the society in the event where the disease takes control of their capability. It is recommended that they are taken good care by the medical expertise during such times. It is also required that the predicament should be quite serious before one is taken to the hospital for the unsound. This is because in the case whereby one is subjected to that treatment and the problem is not that complicated the probability of committing suicide or being depressed is inevitable. It was also documented that before one is confined, the history of persistence in the disorder is provided. People who show that the unsound person had continuously shown the signs and symptoms are put into consideration since the evidence shows that one will be completely sick. In addition to that, the insane person is also given th e voice to talk on whether to be detained or not. It should be a voluntary decision especially for persons of maturity age and those who used to live a normal life in the past. Both nations are strict on how these groups of people are handled by the medical personnel (Mckenna, Keeney & Hasson, 2008). Patients’ autonomy policy is also a regulation governing the medical fraternity in both states. The patients have the ability to state that they want to be treated by whom, and the mode of treatment they should receive. They also have the freedom of engaging with the health care provider in relation to their health problem and on a wider range of issues. The patient also chooses which medication to be given and no medical personnel can force or compel a patient to take medications in which one does not want. The ill person can also dictate on the place one want to be treated from. This can be at home, school or place of work and the doctor has to follow without complaining and failing to do so; medical provider is subject to imprisonment. This is because it is seen as breaking the law (GALLEGO, CASEY, NORMAN & GOODALL, 2010) Permissibility of death is also discussed at length in the health constitution of these countries. A person who does not show any sign of recovering and i s suffering too much can be suppressed to die by the medics. This is only done in the event where the relatives agreed upon it and show it in writing and signing. This clause has received a lot of debate from humanitarian agents since life is very fundamental. According to Jones (2007), one should be allowed to die in peace instead of injecting drugs to discontinue life. Reproductive health and maternal health care also caries lot of weight in the health policy of the two nations. Mothers and girls have the privilege to deliver in hospitals of their choice. The parties involved should be specialized in order to avoid a complication, which comes with delivering. Both countries provide these services free of charge to all in any of its public hospitals. However, in the private sector, they subsidize this service in order to reach all at a cheaper and comfortable way. Another big concern is on the abortion-related matters (Milgrom, Heaton & Timothy Newton, 2013). The doctors have the mandate to perform abortion to the client given the state of the mother and the fetus is in danger. This faces serious ethical and legal concerns from humanitarian organizations. This is because most people believe that doctors have reached an extent of performing such for client of unwanted pregnancies brought about by unscrupulous behavior. Their respective governments are mandated with the task of financing the medical fraternity of Australia and Ireland. In Australia for instance, it is estimated that 1.5% of income levied from both Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and National Domestic Product (NDP) of the country is used in financing the health sector (Mckenna, Keeney & Hasson, 2009). The government of this country also has separate pharmaceuticals, which are state owned. This assists its citizens in purchasing of drugs at a cheaper price. However, in the point of excess the patient pays own medications unless one is privileged to have medical insurance. Similarly, the government of Ireland also provides health care free to its citizens. It is estimated that health care is financed through taxation of 2% of wages received by the working population. This money is used to improve health facilities and for purchasing of drugs used in treating patients in the hospitals. Furthermore, a patient pays for one’s medicatio n on point of excesses unless one has medical insurance. Children and dependent spouses receive medication free of charge in all hospitals. Australian and Irelands are provided medical care universally by their respective governments without discrimination on social class and so on (Embrett, Randall, Longo, Nguyen & Mulvale, 2016) Cost of technology is one of the major current issues affecting the health fraternity in both countries. The innovation of machines such has x-rays, chemotherapy equipment, and kidney dialysis machines have caused more than enough problems in the medical fraternity. These machines are subject to breakage, the manner of using is also very complicated since most doctors, and nurses’ capacity of using is still below the estimated quality. This has made these nations to spend too much in changing and training of medics on how to use the so equipment. Another current issue affecting this nation’s healthcare is equity for health provision countrywide. Despite of these being implemented countrywide, it is noted that only those people of high class such has politicians have the privilege to access quality health care. According to research carried out in one of the hospitals in Ireland, it was realized that there is a special ward, which is used in treating of dignitaries and t hose people who are wealth. Moreover, the way they are handled is special as compared to ordinary citizens. These menaces need an immediate address otherwise; the entire health sector will soon diminish (Kowalchuk, 2011). The pandemic brought about by chronic diseases is also seriously eating on the government. This has majorly being as a result of change in demography. The working population is bound to contract chronic disease and thus the spending on medical care on the government and the dependent population escalates. This leads to much spending on unprofitable ventures and in return the concentration on nation building matters are left in the hand of international donors such world bank (RIPPON, 2000). The degree on persistence on quality and safety concerns in the health sector is looming in both countries. This is as a result of serious reparations a nation is bound to face in case one fails to provide quality health care as required by World Health Organization (WHO) (Metcalf et al, 2016). This has caused immense struggle among them in order to meet these standards. This in the long run paralyses other important sectors of the economy and pulls back the economy of a nation. Besides, the cost of providing health increases day by day (MOHRMAN & SHANI, 2010). This is attributed to continuous change in climatic conditions making most people to be vulnerable to diseases. This causes a massive expenditure by the government and their citizens. The problem emanating from uncertainties on how to balance between public and private health care fraternities is strongly hitting on the government. Most private investors more so the doctors have realized that health fraternity is very profitab le. This has caused majority of them to compete with the government in this field. Some have even left their jobs in public sector to run their own business (MITCHELL, 2009). This has caused a big gap which is needed to be filled as soon as   possible otherwise the tyranny of health care will fail the sooner. Governments from the two countries experiences big problems while trying to bring about balance in these two sectors providing health (VAN, CLARKE, SAVAGE E & HALL, 2008). According to Varley (2016), primary health is defined as health provided at the grass root level. It is provided by different groups both qualified or unqualified health providers. The similarity between the two nations is that both of them have this method of running health care facility in place. It is majorly provided at home or a region where a large population is concentrated. The parties involved are the government, private and non-governmental organizations. Their main agenda is to deal with factors such has drug abuse, asthma, and cancer and sex educations. This is because a person needs holistic health, social welfare, and educational needs (VAN, CLARKE, SAVAGE & HALL, 2008) The difference in primary care between Australia and Ireland in that, Ireland is specific on the geographical location a number to be administered by a certain group of health personnel. It is estimated that they should deal with a population ranging 7000 to 10,000. On the other hand, Australian bases on the communities or social sites without any specific number of persons being targeted. In both the countries, health care is provided equally to all citizens free of charge. Every citizen is subjected to be treated in any public hospital where one specifies without a big deal. In this universal health, the government finances through taxes from the wages and incomes of the working population (Liamputtong, 2011). The patient pays the excess amount required in medical care or the insurance if at all one has subscribed to any. This distinctive feature between these two countries as far as universal health care is concerned is that, in Australia, the government owns pharmaceuticals outlet, which are used by the common citizens to buy drugs (McMurray & Clendon, 2014). This was intended to prevent overexploitation since majority of private organizations sell at a high price, which is not affordable to the common citizen. On the other hand, the Ireland government does not have such projects and thus their citizens solely depends the private sectors. The living standards of majority of citizens of these nations have been constantly doing well and have improved tremendously. This is because when one is healthy, everything sounds good and even morale of working or doing business is negotiable. However, according to international reports health care in Australia is far much better than that of Ireland (Guzys & Petrie, 2013). This is because the dedication extends of Australian medics is of high magnitude as compared to Ireland. Health care is paramount to all citizens. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that their citizens have quality health care in order to counter on the challenges brought by disease pandemic. Moreover, the nations should work together in helping structure health care across the eight world continents in order to reduce human suffering caused by diseases. Australia. (2006). Aged care in Australia. Canberra, A.C.T.: Dept. of Health and Ageing. Biswas, R., Sturmberg, J., Martin, C. M., Ganesh, A. U. J., Umakanth, S. U. J., & Lee, E. W. H. (January 01, 2011). Persistent Clinical Encounters in User Driven E-Health Care. Braithwaite, J., Hyde, P., & POPE, C. (2010).  Culture and climate in health care organizations. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Embrett, M. G., Randall, G. E., Longo, C. J., Nguyen, T., & Mulvale, G. (2016). Effectiveness of Health System Services and Programs for Youth to Adult Transitions in Mental Health Care: A Systematic Review of Academic Literature. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.43, 259-269. Gallego G, Casey R, NORMAN R, & GOODALL S. (2011). Introduction and uptake of new medical technologies in the Australian health care system: a qualitative study.Health   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands).  102, 2-3. Guzys, D., & Petrie, E. (2013). An Introduction to Community and Primary Health Care in Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hungerford, C., Hodgson, D., Clancy, R., Monisse-Redman, M., Bostwick, R., & Jones, T. (2014). Mental health care: An introduction for health professionals in Australia. Jones, D. A., & Roy, C. (2007). Nursing knowledge development and clinical practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co. Kowalchuk, L. (2011). Multisectoral Movement Alliances and Media Access: Salvadoran Newspaper Coverage of the Health Care Struggle. Latin American Politics and Society. 52, 107-135. Lakeman, R. (2008). Family and carer participation in mental health care: perspectives of consumers and carers in hospital and home care settings. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 15, 203-211. Liamputtong, P. (November 03, 2011). Folk healing and health care practices in Britain and Ireland: Stethoscopes, wands and crystals. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33, 7, 1114-1115. McMurray, A., & Clendon, J. (2014). Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Mckenna, H., Keeney, S., & Hasson, F. (2009). Health care managers’ perspectives on new nursing and midwifery roles: perceived impact on patient care and cost effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Management. 17, 627-635. Milgrom, ,. P., Heaton, L. J., & Timothy Newton, J. (2013). Different Treatment Approaches in Different Cultures and Health-Care Systems. 183-199. Mitchell, P. (2009). Mental health care roles of non-medical primary health and social care services.  Health & Social Care in the Community.  17, 71-82. Metcalf, D., Parsons, D., & Bowler, P. (March 02, 2016). A next-generation antimicrobial wound dressing: a real-life clinical evaluation in the UK and Ireland. Journal of Wound Care, 25, 3, 132-138. Mohrman, S. A., & Shani, A. B. (2012). Organizing for sustainable health care. Bingley, U.K., Emerald. Rippon, T. J. (2000). Aggression and violence in health care professions. Journal of Advanced Nursing.   Ã‚   31, 452-460. SoÃÅ'ˆDerbaÃÅ'ˆCk, M., Coyne, I., & Harder, M. (2011). The importance of including both a   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   child perspective and the child's perspective within health care settings to provide truly   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   child-centred care.  Journal of Child Health Care.  15, 99-106. Van Doorslaer E, Clarke P, Savage E, & Hall J. (2008). Horizontal inequities in   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Australia's mixed public/private health care system.  Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands).  86, 97-108. Varley, E. (June 01, 2016). Abandonments, Solidarities and Logics of Care: Hospitals as Sites of Sectarian Conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry : an International Journal of Cross-Cultural Healthresearch, 40, 2, 159-180. Getting academic assistance from

Improvement of Health Care Services Received by Indigenous People in Essay

Improvement of Health Care Services Received by Indigenous People in Australia - Essay Example This paper focuses on health care services received by Indigenous Australians and necessary policy changes to improve health outcomes for this population. Indigenous health In Australia, there are two groups of Indigenous population who have been in the country for more than 60,000 years: Aboriginal people from the Australian continent and the island state of Tasmania, and Torres Strait Islanders. These groups together comprise up to 2-4 percent of the total Australian population (Anderson et al., 2006, p.1776). Research has proved that the standard of general health of Indigenous Australians is much lower than that of the majority of Australians, and this would have been revolutionary matter if it had existed in the broader community. Periodically various reports are released regarding the appalling health conditions of the Aboriginal communities that create shock waves and induce demands for appropriate actions. However, such reports seem to have little impact on health policies fo r the Aboriginals and very soon the gravity of the situation is forgotten till the next report is released (Saggers & Gray, 2007, p.1). The differences in health conditions arise from social inequalities. Although some important elements are differences in accessibility of health services as well as differences in lifestyle, but major factors that determine unequal health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are the circumstances under which they are born, grown up and work (Marmot, 2011, p.512). General population studies have proved that Indigenous Australians have greater mortality and disability rates at every phase of life than non-Indigenous Australians. This is because the former...This paper focuses on health care services received by Indigenous Australians and necessary policy changes to improve health outcomes for this population. Health care system provides beneficial packages to every member of the society with the objective of providing quality healt h care services to ensure enhanced health outcomes. The health care industry is always undergoing changes and is under constant pressure to deliver the best services. Public demand of quality health care services is increasing and the cost involved in providing these services is also increasing. There is wide disparity in the health conditions between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. This has been accepted by the United Nations committees as part of their human rights issues and is accepted by the Australian governments. Indigenous health research can be a promising field considering there is efficiency and fairness in the research activities to improve medical services for the Aboriginal people. There should be sufficient planning and preparation, and the researchers should be communicating with the Indigenous communities and should work in collaboration with the people to ensure that research outcomes are practical, ethical and culturally sensitive. It is not required that new policies are designed or new strategies are made; instead the focus should be on executing the current Indigenous health programs in a more efficient and ethical manner. Focus should also be given on education to Indigenous people to enhance health awareness.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Customer Relationship Management and Technology Essay

Customer Relationship Management and Technology - Essay Example In the same manner, they were also able to develop good relationships with their customers through the establishment of friendships and interactions. As a result, the retail industry revolves around the customer more than any other industry. Due to this, it is not enough to simply interact with the customers. Rather, they are expected to know them better These all changed, however with the growing chains and building malls and the continuous promotion of self-service. With these changes, more and more retailers have lost their contact with their customers. As a result, they are also simply losing the loyalty that the customers once entrusted upon them. Hence, more and more retailers are now trying to regain the loyalty they lost as they begin to value of their customers through programs incorporated within the idea of customer relationship management. Customer Relationship Management: An Overview Customer relationship management (CRM) can be defined as â€Å"a set of practices that provide a consolidated, integrated view of customers across all business areas to ensure that each customer receives the highest level of service† (Aryan Hellas Ltd. 2005). ... According to them, CRM involves the integration of marketing, sales, customer service, and the supply-chain functions of the organization to achieve greater efficiencies and effectiveness in delivering customer value. These definitions emphasise that CRM is a comprehensive set of strategies for managing relationships with customers that relate to the overall process of marketing, sales, service, and support within the organisation. The following are the important players who are essential to customer relationship management within the organization: 1. Customer Facing Operations – The people and the technology support of processes that significantly affects the experiences of the customers and the organization. These may include different kinds of media such as phone, IM, chat, email, web and even face to face interactions. 2. Internal Collaborative Functional Operations – these are the people and technology support of the processes at the back office. Their activities u sually affect the activities of those at the Customer Facing Operations which influence the establishment and maintenance of customer relationships. This usually includes: IT, billing, invoicing, maintenance, planning, marketing, advertising, finance, services planning and manufacturing. 3. External Collaboration Functions – These are the people and technology support of processes supporting a particular organization together with the enhancement of customer relationships which is then in turn, are affected by the organization’s relationship with their suppliers and/or vendors as well as other retailers outlets and/or distributors. This is considered the external network which supports the internal operations and customer facing operations. 4. Customer Advocates and

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Financial management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Financial management - Essay Example Assuming that the cost of sales also increases by the same figure, the cost of sales has been increased by the same margin. R&D costs are assumed to remain the same for the two years, and the selling and administrative costs to increase by 20% of the figure in the previous year. Restructuring costs are computed as 2% of the total sales, and the taxation rate as 15% of the sales figure. After all this assumptions, the following forecasted statement is prepared. 4. The results shown above indicate that the net income for period September 26, 2008 through to September 25, 2009 indicate that Microchip Computer Corporation will earn a net income of $1777.34. To calculate this increase in net income is derived from a 20% increase in net sales, which is accompanied by a corresponding increase in cost of sales. The selling, general and administrative costs are also assumed to increase by the same figure. The forecast of the consolidated statements of operations included the following